In C, do you need to declare both values when declaring and initializing a new 2-dimensional array?

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In C, can Arrays be more than one type of variable?

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In C, how do you declare a string using pointer notation?

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2

In C, how do you declare a string that can be manipulated?

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3

Why are strings saved in memory as the length of the text plus 1?

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4

In C, how can you insert a string placeholder using the printf function?

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5

In C, how can you insert an integer placeholder using the printf function?

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6

In C, how do you compare 2 strings?

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7

In C, how do you concatenate 2 strings?

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8

In C, what library do you need to include in order to have access to the strncmp and strncat functions?

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9

In C, how many values can functions return?

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10

In C, how do you declare a function that does not return a function?

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11

In C, which keyword is used to set the scope of a variable and function to the file level?

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12

In C, what is a pointer?

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13

In C, what 3 things does this line accomplish: 'char * name = 'John';'

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14

In C, what is the act of referring to where the pointer points?

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15

In C, what is a linked list?

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16

In C, what are the advantages of a linked list?

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17

In C, what are the disadvantages of a linked list?

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18

What is a binary tree?

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19

In binary trees, what is depth-first search (DFS)?

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20

In binary trees, what is breadth-first search (BFS)?

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21

In C, what are the advantages of dynamic allocation?

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22

In C, how do we dynamically allocate memory and then release that memory?

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23

What is the mathematical brain of a computer?

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24

What are the 3 fundamental operations in boolean algebra?

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25

In boolean algebra, what flips a true value to false and a false value to true?

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26

What is a transistor?

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27

What is the standard way in which humans represent numbers?

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28

What is the standard way in which computers recognize numbers?

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29

What is the highest number that can be represented in 8 bits (1 byte)?

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30

How do you represent negative numbers in binary?

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31

What standard was created to represent letters and characters with binary code?

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32

What was the first universal encoding scheme?

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33

Explain the 2 parts of an ALU

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34

In memory, what is a latch?

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35

In memory, what's a 'register'?

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36

In memory, what is a larger register referred to as?

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37

Explain RAM

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38

What is the heart of a computer?

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39

What are the components of a CPU?

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40

What are the phases of a CPU's operation?

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41

What is the clock speed?

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42

What is the term for speeding up or slowing down a CPU's clock speed?

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43

In RAM, for each byte of data, what do the first 4 and then last 4 digits specify?

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44

What's it called to have bigger CPU instructions with more bits?

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45

What is instruction set architecture (ISA)?

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46

What is the list of operations that a CPU follows?

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47

What are the data wires connecting the CPU to the RAM?

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48

What is a little piece of ram located on the CPU?

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49

What is it called with the CPU draws from data already stored in its cache?

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50

What's it called when the data stored in memory is different from the data stored in the CPU's cache?

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51

What is instruction pipelining?

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52

What is speculative execution?

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53

If a CPU performs an incorrect speculative execution, what is the process for correction?

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54

What benefit do multi-core processors provide?

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55

What was one of the most famous examples of early programming?

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56

What is the language that computers speak?

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57

What is the writing of computer code in everyday language?

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58

What is the job of an assembler?

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59

Who built the first compiler?

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60

What is the job of a compiler?

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61

What compiler was built shortly after A-0 by IBM?

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62

What was the first common programming language that could be used by multiple different machines?

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63

What is the set of rules that govern the structure and composition of statements in a language?

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64

What is the statement that assigns a value to a variable?

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65

What does it mean to set initial values for variables upon declaration?

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66

What are examples of Control Flow Statements?

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67

What type of statements are if-expression-then-endif statements?

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68

What are packages of code called?

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69

What is it called to send a value back to the program from a function?

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70

What is the benefit of breaking code into many functions?

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71

What are bundles of pre-written functions available in most programming languages?

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72

What is an algorithm?

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73

What is Big-O Notation?

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74

What is a brute-force approach?

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75

What is Dijkstra's Algorithm?

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76

What is a series of values stored in memory?

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77

What is another term for an array or arrays?

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78

What is a linked-list?

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79

What are examples of linked-lists?

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80

What are nodes?

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81

What are trees?

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82

Who is known as 'The Father of Computer Science'?

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83

What is the Church-Turing Thesis?

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84

What is the Turing Test?

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85

Who coined the term 'software engineering'?

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86

What is object oriented programming?

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87

What is an API?

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88

What are IDEs?

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89

What were the individual parts (vacuum tubes, resistors, capacitors, diodes) of electronic computing referred to as?

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90

What are integrated circuits?

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91

Who is the father of modern ICs (integrated circuits)?

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92

What were the benefits of printed circuit boards (PCBs) upon invention?

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93

What is the fabrication process of an integrated circuit?

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94

Who determined that approximately every 2 years, thanks to advances in materials and manufacturing, you could fit twice the number of transistors into the same amount of space?

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95

What are external devices connected to a computer called?

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96

What do operating systems provide as intermediary APIs between software programs and hardware peripherals?

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97

What is the benefit of virtual memory?

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98

What is dynamic memory allocation?

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99

What is the benefit of each program having their own block of allocated memory?

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100

What is a terminal?

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101

What is time-sharing?

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102

What is a kernel?

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103

What is non-permanent memory also called?

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104

What is the time that it takes for a computer to access any block of data?

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105

What are solid state technologies?

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106

What determines how the data inside a file is organized?

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107

What character encoding standard do TXT files use?

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108

What is data about data called?

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109

In a picture, what does each individual pixel consist of?

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110

What keeps tracks of file information inside of a computer (including when each file begins in storage and how long they are)?

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111

What is it called when files get broken up across storage?

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112

What is 'run-length encoding'?

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113

What is compression that doesn't cause any quality or information loss?

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114

What is a Huffman Tree?

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115

What is lossy compression?

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116

In video files, what is it called when certain elements (like a background) remain largely the same frame-by-frame and therefore don't need to be retransmitted?

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117

What is a portion of the computer's memory reserved for the screen's character generator called?

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118

What was the first commercially successful computer?

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119

What was one of the most influential factors bringing about personal computers?

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120

What was the first commercially successful personal computer?

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121

What is an interpreter?

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122

When did the first Apple computer launch?

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123

What personal computers were sold in 1977 that were offered as ready out-of-the-box?

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124

When was Macintosh first released?

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125

What is a GUI?

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126

What is a WIMP Interface?

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127

What is event-driven programming?

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128

What is the process of flattening 3D coordinates onto a 2D plane?

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129

Triangles used in 3D objects are called what?

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130

What is Anti-Aliasing?

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131

What is latency?

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132

What are relatively small networks of close-by computers called?

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133

What is a popular LAN connection using a connected cable?

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134

What is the rate at which a carrier can transmit data?

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135

What is 'Exponential Backoff'?

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136

What is 'Circuit Switching'?

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137

What is 'Message Switching'?

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138

What is the 'Hop Count'?

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139

What is 'Packet Switching'?

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140

What is the process your computer follows to connected to the internet via network?

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141

What is 'Internet Protocol' (IP)?

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142

What is 'User Datagram Protocol' (UDP)?

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143

What is 'Transmission Control Protocol' (TCP)?

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144

What is 'Domain Name System' (DNS)?

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145

What are the 7 layers of the OSI (Open System Interconnection)?

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146

What is URL short for?

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147

What is HTML short for?

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148

What would it mean for data to get 'throttled'?

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149

In cybersecurity, what does 'integrity' mean?

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150

In cybersecurity, what does 'availability' mean?

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151

In cybersecurity, what is a 'threat model'?

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152

In cybersecurity, what is an 'attack vector'?

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153

What 2 main questions does security boil down to?

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154

How does the computer differentiate between the right and wrong people?

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155

What is a 'brute force attack'?

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156

What is 'multi-factor authentication'?

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157

What is 'Access Control'?

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158

What are the 3 types of permissions?

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159

What is the 'no read up, no write down' approach in cybersecurity?

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160

Where do most security errors come from?

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161

What is the process of having code audited by a crowd of security experts?

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162

In cybersecurity, what is 'isolation'?

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163

What are 'good' hackers called?

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164

What is it called when hackers trick users into letting them in?

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165

What is 'phishing'?

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166

What is 'pretexting'?

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167

What is a 'Trojan Horse'?

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168

What is a 'buffer overflow'?

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169

How can 'buffer overflow' be prevented?

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170

What is 'code injection'?

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171

What does it mean to 'sanitize' data?

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172

What is it called when a new exploitable bug is discovered that software creators weren't of?

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173

What are 'worms'?

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174

What is a 'botnet'?

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175

What is a 'DDoS Attack'?

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176

What is 'Defense in Depth'?

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177

What is the process of making text a secret?

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178

What was one of the earliest software ciphers to become widespread?

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179

How does the 'Advanced Encryption Standard' work?

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180

What is a 'Key Exchange'?

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181

What is the 'Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange'?

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182

What is 'machine learning'?

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183

What is a 'classification'?

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184

How do machine-learning algorithms use 'features'?

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185

In machine-learning, what's it called when we divide up decisions into boxes?

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186

What are 2 common machine-learning techniques?

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187

What are 'Artificial Neural Networks'?

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188

What is artificial intelligence that is only good at specific tasks?

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189

What would human-level artificial intelligence be referred to as?

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190

What is 'Reinforcement Learning'?

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191

What is 'Computer Vision'?

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192

What is a 'kernel'?

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193

What are edge-enhancing kernels called?

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194

What are 'Convulational Neural Networks'?

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195

What is 'Natural Language Processing'?

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196

What rules were developed to encapsulate the grammar of a language for computers?

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197

What is a 'parse tree'?

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198

What is a 'Negative Feedback Loop'?

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199

What is a 'Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller'?

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200

What are 'Androids'?

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201

What are robots with the intelligence and capability to take human lives?

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202

What is 'usability'?

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203

What does it mean for data to be 'chunked'?

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204

What are 'affordances'?

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205

What is 'knurling'?

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206

Should interfaces offer multiple paths to accomplish goals?

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207

What is 'affect' in computer psychology?

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208

What is 'computer-mediated communication (CMC)'?

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209

What is 'augmented gaze'?

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210

In robotics, what is the dip in realism between almost-human and actually-human called?

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211

What is 'ubiquitous computing'?

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212

What is 'singularity'?

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213

What is a 'complexity brake'?

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214

What is it called when a job sector is rendered obsolete by computers (such as AI and robots)?

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215

What is the term for when humans and technology merge?

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216

What does it mean for an algorithm to run in 'linear time'?

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217

What is 'asymptotic complexity' or when an algorithm runs in 'constant time'?

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218

What does it mean for an algorithm to run in 'logarithmic time'?

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219

What is 'order of growth'?

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220

What is 'asymptotic behavior'?

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221

What is 'recursion'?

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222

What are 'profilers'?

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223

What is 'worst-case analysis'?

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224

What would our time-based formula be if our program had a constant number of instructions?

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225

What would be a real-life program example of f(n) = n-exponential 2?

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226

What symbol do we use when we've determined the value of 'f' asymptotically?

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227

What are the 4 common algorithm 'time complexities' called?

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228

What is the difference between 'theta of n' and 'big O of n'?

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229

How can complexities between theta and Big-O be considered 'tight'?

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230

What does 'big omega' tell us (i.e. 'big omega of n')?

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231

When would we need to refer to 'small omega' (i.e. 'small omega of n')?

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232

What are the comparable mathematical symbols for the common asymptotic comparisons?

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233

What do 'logarithmic' operations do to a number?

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234

What is it called when an algorithm solves a problem in the best possible way?

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235

In arrays, what is 'row major' ordering?

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236

In arrays, what is 'column major' ordering?

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237

In arrays, what is the time formula for adding and subtracting an element to the end of an array?

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238

In arrays, what is the time formula for adding and subtracting an element to the beginning of an array?

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239

In arrays, what is the time formula for adding and subtracting an element to the middle of an array?

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240

What is the primary benefit of arrays?

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241

What are arrays?

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242

In linked-lists, what is the time formula for PushFront() and PopFront()?

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243

In linked-lists, what is the time formula for PushBack() and PopBack()?

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244

What is a doubly-linked list?

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245

What are the benefits of linked lists?

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246

What is a stack data type?

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247

What are a couple of common use cases for the stack data type?

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246

How do you implement a stack data type?

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247

What is the primary benefit of the stack data type?

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248

What is a queue data type?

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249

How do you implement a queue data type?

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250

What is a tree data structure?

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251

How do you determine the height of a tree data structure?

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252

How many children can a binary tree node contain?

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253

How do we walk a tree data structure?

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254

What are dynamic arrays?

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255

What is amortized cost?

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256

What is the aggregate method of amortized analysis?

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257

What is the Banker's Method of amortized analysis?

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258

What is the Physicist's Method of amortized analysis?

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259

What is a Priority Queue data structure?

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260

What is a binary max-heap?

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261

What is tree data structure union by rank heuristic?

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262

What is 'direct addressing' in hashing?

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263

What is a 'hash function'?

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264

In hashing, what is a collision?

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265

What is 'chaining' in 'hashing'?

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266

In hashing, what is a 'map'?

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267

What is 'cardinality' in hashing?

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268

What is a 'hash table'?

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269

What is a 'blockchain'?

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270

What is a 'Merkle Tree'?

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271

What are 'Binary Search Trees'?

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272

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273

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274

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